Abortion... When is it safe?No medical procedure is 100% safe so the answer is never Completely,
and less safe than many procedures. To be 100% safe don't have one.
The statement we keep hearing is: We need to "Keep abortion safe and legal". What is referred to in the terms: "Safe and legal"?
The below information provides scientific and other documentation that legal abortion, contrary to popular opinion, doesn't help women but hurts them severely and/or kills them.
There are approximately 350 entries linked to below showing how abortion hurts women.
In addition, you can also search for categories of how abortion hurts women. These are the categories:
Other notes about citations:
Now the actual material on abortion hurting women begins.
001) "Dr. Pulver (charged with a 'bungled abortion') has 'an outstanding record of service with thousands of women and families in Schenectady [New York]." Planned Parenthood official quoted in The Daily Gazette, 1 November 1991.
002) "Our association with Dr. Cunanan [placed on probation for committing abortions on two women and sterilizing another, all without their permission] has been longstanding and extremely positive." Planned Parenthood of Niagara County, Niagara Gazette, 2 October 1997.
003) "There is a wide range of reported incidence of post abortion infections from .1% to as high as 43%. [J. L. Sorensen, et al., Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. May 1992, quoted in source shown below] The difference is mainly due to (1) differences in defining the word infection; (2) time of observation; and (3) whether or not antibiotics were used. From "Lack of Individualized Counseling Regarding Risk Factors For Induced Abortion: A Violation of Informed Consent, Part 1," NAIRVSC, July/August 1996,
004) Types of postabortion infections include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is inflammation of the female genital tract, endometritis which is inflammation of the inner lining of the uterine wall, salpingitis which is inflammation of the fallopian or Eustachian tube, and peritonitis, inflammation of the abdominal cavity. The term sepsis or septic abortion is also frequently used to describe any serious infection. From "Lack of Individualized Counseling Regarding Risk Factors For Induced Abortion: A Violation of Informed Consent, Part 1," NAIRVSC, July/August 1996, 2.
005) A sample statement from an abortion clinic informational form includes the following: "Infection is caused by germs from the vagina or cervix getting into the uterus or tubes. The risk of infection associated with early abortion is less than 1 in 100 cases. Such infections usually respond to antibiotics, but in a few cases, a repeat procedure or hospitalization is necessary and occasionally surgery is required. From "Lack of Individualized Counseling Regarding Risk Factors For Induced Abortion: A Violation of Informed Consent, Part 1," NAIRVSC, July/August 1996, 2.
006) This statement has several errors or omissions. First, it narrowly interprets the meaning of the word infection to what is immediately observed at an abortion facility, and thus omits infections which occur a few hours, days, or weeks later. It fails to acknowledge that abortion itself can cause infection as well as spread infection. It fails to explain any of the potentially serious complications from postabortion infections. Finally, it fails to differentiate between different populations which have varying
007) "For example, researchers at Johns Hopkins University compared women undergoing first trimester abortion and found that among those without gonorrhea at the time of the abortion only 3.3% had post-abortion endometritis and 1.1% were hospitalized compared to 14.7% incidence of endometritis and a 5.4% hospitalization rate if gonorrhea was present. [R. T Burkman et al., "Untreated Endocervical gonorrhea and Endometritis Following Elective Abortion," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 126:1976, 648-651] John's Hopkins researchers had similar findings when chlamydia trachomatis was present at the time of abortion [M. Barbacci et al., "Postabortal Endometritis and Isolation of Chlamydia Trachomatis," Obstet. Gynecol.Nov 1996, 686-690 and D. Avonts and P Piot, "Genital Infections in women Undergoing Therapeutic Abortion," Europe. J. Obstet. Gynec. Reprod. Biol. 20:1985, 53-59] The authors stated: 'it is believed that a factor in the development of endometritis is the induced abortion itself as it has been documented that dilation of the cervical canal and curettage of the uterine cavity can stimulate spread of an unrecognized infection to the uterine cavity.' From "Lack of Individualized Counseling Regarding Risk Factors For Induced Abortion: A Violation of Informed Consent, Part 1," NAIRVSC, July/August 1996, 3.
008) Scandinavian studies have also found that the presence of chlamydia trachomatis infection at the time of the abortion significantly increases the incidence of post-abortive pelvic inflammatory disease from 4.4% to 23.4% in one study [T. Radbert and L. Hamberger, "Chlamydia Trachomatis in Relation to Infections Following First Trimester Abortions," Acta. Obstet. Gynaecol., Supp 93, 1980, 478], and from 10% to 28% in another study. [L. Westergaard, "Significance of Cervical Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Postabortal Pelvic Inflammatory Disease," Obstet. Gynecol. Sept 1982, 322]. From "Lack of Individualized Counseling Regarding Risk Factors For Induced Abortion: A Violation of Informed Consent, Part 1," NAIRVSC, July/August 1996, 3.
009) Age is also a risk factor for post-abortion infection. In a study done at Johns Hopkins University on post abortion endometritis (infection of the uterine wall), it was found that 7% of post-abortion women had endometritis if they were 17 years of age or less at the time of their abortion, compared to only 2.5% among women who were 20 - 29 years. The difference was statistically significant [R.T Burkman et al., "Morbidity Risk Among Young Adolescents Undergoing Elective Abortion," Contraception, August 1984, 99]. Another Scandinavian study found that chlamydia positive women age 13 - 19 undergoing first trimester abortion were significantly more likely to develop post-abortion endometritis (28%) compared to women age 20 - 24 (22.7%), or women age 25 - 29 (20%). Also, chlamydia positive post abortion women age 13 - 19 were also more likely to develop post abortion salpingitis (21.9%) compared to women age 20 - 24 (13.6%) [S. Osser and K. Perrson, "Postabortal Pelvic Infection Associated with Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection and the Influence of Hormonal Immunity," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 150:1984, 699]. Overall, early complication rates are higher in
010) "The presence of post-abortion PID has a very significant impact on long term reproduction. For example, in a study by Danish researcher Lars Heisterberg of 382 women without postabortal PID, only 5% of those without PID reported any spontaneous miscarriages 5 - 6 years post abortion, compared to 22% among those women with postabortal PID. Significant differences were also found with secondary infertility (2% vs. 10%), pain during sexual intercourse (5% vs. 20%), chronic pelvic
011) Regarding increased low birth weight and short gestation: "A study by the World Health Organization of legalized abortion in Great Britain, Europe, Korea and Scandinavia concluded that repeat abortion is associated with a 2 to 2.5 fold increase in low birth weight and short gestation when either is compared with one live birth or one abortion." World Health Organization, Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction: Seventh Annual Report, Geneva, November 1978, quoted in NAIRVSC, Winter 1993, 6-8.
012) Also regarding increased low birth weight and short gestation: "In a study of white women who delivered between 1984-87 in Washington state, the unadjusted proportion of infants born with a birth weight of less than 2500 grams was 4.4% among women with no abortion history, 5.7% for women with one prior abortion, 7.7% for women with two prior abortions, and 9.6% for women with 4 or more prior abortions." M. T. Mandelson, et al., 391-394, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Winter 1993, 6-8.
013) Regarding increased risk of premature birth : "A Danish study conducted in 1974-75 concluded that women with a history of 2 or more abortions had twice the risk of a premature infant compared with women with one past abortion." E. Obel, "Pregnancy Complications Following Legally Induced Abortion With Special Reference to Abortion Technique," Acta Ob Gyn Scan, 1979, 147-52, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Winter 1993, 6-8.
014) Regarding increased risk of miscarriage or incomplete abortion: "A Boston Hospital for Women study conducted in 1976-78 concluded that women who had had two or more induced abortions were 2.7 times more likely to have future first trimester spontaneous abortions (early miscarriage) and 3.2 times more likely to have a second trimester incomplete abortion than were women with no history of induced abortion." A. Levin et al., "Association of Induced Abortion With Subsequent Pregnancy Loss," JAMA, 27 June 1980, 2495, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Winter 1993, 6-8.
015) Regarding increased incidence of secondary infertility: "A 1987-88 study of women in Athens, Greece, admitted for secondary infertility found that women with 2 or more prior abortions had a relative risk of 2.3 for secondary infertility and women with one abortion had a relative risk of 2.1 compared with women with no abortion history." (Tzonou et al., "Induced Abortions, Miscarriages, and Tobacco Smoking as Risk Factors for Secondary Infertility," Journal Epidemiology and Community Health, 1993, quoted in NAIRVSC, Winter 1993, 6-8.) (Secondary fertility means there was a previous conception, the woman had been trying to become pregnant for at least 18 months, and the man had a normal semen analysis.)
016) Regarding increased risk of ectopic pregnancy: "A study of women at the Boston Hospital for Women found that the relative risk of ectopic pregnancy to be 1.6 for women with one prior abortion (reduced to 1.3 after control [adjustment] of confounding factors) and 4.0 for women with two or more prior abortions (reduced to 2.6 after control of confounding factors.)" A. Levin et al., "Ectopic Pregnancy and Prior Induced Abortion," American Journal Public Health, March 1982, 253-56, quoted
017) "The Virginia Department of Medical Assistance Services has gathered data indicating that poor women who give birth are healthier than those who undergo abortions. 'The women with legally induced abortions had 532 claims for subsequent health interventions,' a memo from the department read. 'The women with normal deliveries had 307 claims for subsequent health interventions." Thus, those who aborted had (532 - 307)/307 x 100 = 73% greater chance of needing intervention than those who had not aborted. "UPDATES: ABORTION AND HEALTH," Family Voice, June 1995, 30.
018) "2.7 percent of 4,823 patients had gonorrhea; 14.7 percent of patients with gonorrhea developed endometritis over a two-year period. The authors concluded that there is a potential threefold increase for postabortal endometritis with untreated endocervical gonorrhea, which indicates a need to reevaluate approaches to some patients requesting pregnancy termination." R.T. Burkman, J. Tonascia, M. Atienza and T. King, "Untreated Endocervical Gonorrhea and Endometritis Following Elective
019) "70,000 women were hospitalized for ectopic pregnancy in the U.S. in 1983, resulting in 70,000 fetal deaths. Ectopic pregnancy accounted for 12.8 percent of all maternal deaths in the U.S. in 1983.
020) "A California case-control study of 2091 women who had one ore more induced abortions matched with 4098 controls without a history of abortion found that a prior induced abortion had a relative risk of 1.45 (1.06-1.99, 95% C.I.) of pregnancy failure (ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, fetal or neonatal death). Smokers had a relative risk of 1.85, (1.11-3.10, 95% C.I.) of pregnancy failure." C. Madore, W.E. Haws, F. Many, A.C. Hexter, "A Study on the Effects of Induced Abortion on Subsequent Pregnancy Outcome," Am J. Obstet. Gynecol, 139 (1981): 516-521.
021) "A California study of 173 cases of placenta previa during 1975-78 found that a history of prior abortion, previous placenta previa or prior cesarean section enhanced the risk of developing placenta previa. The complications associated with placenta previa included fetal malpresentation (breech or transverse lie), cord prolapse and premature rupture of the membranes." D.B. Cotton, J.A. Read, R.I.T. Paul, E.J. Quilligan, "The Conservative Aggressive Management of Placenta Previa," Am J. Obstet. Gynecol., 137 (1980): 687.
022) "A case-control analysis of 19 uterine perforations which occurred during laparoscopic sterilization had an overall perforation rate of 30.4 per 1,000 procedures. Case women were more likely to combine two of the three characteristics: age over 34, parity (one or more children) and obesity (20% above the ideal body weight for height.)" M. White, H. Ory and L. Goldenberg, "Uterine Perforation Following Medical Termination of Pregnancy by Vacuum Aspiration," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 129 (1977): 623.
023) "A case-control study of 68 women at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia in 1975-79 found that the crude risk ratio for placenta previa in women with a history of one or more legal abortions was 1.4 (0.5-3.6, 95% C.I.) after adjustment for age and gravidity. The study used a narrow definition for placenta previa which limits its value." D.A. Grimes, T. Techman, "Legal Abortion and Placenta Previa," Am J. Obstet. Gynecol., 149 (1984): 501.
024) "A case-control study of married couples diagnosed as having secondary infertility at the University of Washington Hospital in 1976-78 found that women with a history of prior induced abortion had a 1.31 relative risk of secondary infertility (0.71-2.43, 95% C.I.) compared with controls." J.R. Daling, L.R. Spadoni, I. Emanuel, "Role of Induced Abortion in Secondary Infertility," Obstet Gynecol, 57 (1981), 59.
025) "A Connecticut case-control study during 1974-76 found that mothers with prior induced abortions had odds ratios above 1.0 with respect to the following specific congenital malformations of subsequently born children: Inguinal Hernia (OR 1.4, P=0.24); Anencephaly (OR 1.3, P=0.62); Polysyndactyly (OR 2.7, P=0.02); Downs (OR1.5, P=0.46). Overall, white women delivering babies with congenital malformations were significantly less likely to report having had a previously induced abortion (OR 0.7, P=0.01) while black women who delivered were significantly more likely to have experienced a past induced abortion (OR 1.7, P=0.04)." M.B. Braken, T.R. Holford, "Induced abortion and subsequent congenital malformations in offspring of subsequent pregnancies," Am. J Epidemiology, 109(4) (1979): 425-432.
026) "A Danish study compared women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by a legal induced abortion (group 1), with women whose previous pregnancy had ended in a spontaneous abortion or still birth (group 2), women whose previous pregnancy ended in a live birth (group 3), and women with no previous pregnancies. The study found that an induced abortion increases the risk of bleeding in a subsequent pregnancy compared with women with previous deliveries as well as women with no
027) "A Norwegian study compared 619 women who had their last pregnancy terminated by abortion to an age and parity matched group of women who continued the pregnancy to delivery. Among those who had not been pregnant previously the complications rate was 25.5% in the abortion group compared to 13.2% in the control which was statistically significant. Complications included first and second trimester abortion (miscarriage): cervical incompetence, pre-term delivery, ectopic pregnancy
028) "A prospective study of 11,057 pregnancies of West Jerusalem mothers found that 0.3% of women reporting no previous induced abortions had placenta previa compared to 0.8% of women reporting one or more induced abortions according to crude rates. Standardized rates showed no statistical significance (0.4% vs. 0.5%)." S. Harlap and M. Davies, "Late Sequelae of Induced Abortion: Complications and Outcome of Pregnancy and Labor," Am J. Epidemiology, 102(3) (1975): 217.
029) "A repeat abortion is associated with a two- to two and a half-fold increase in the rate of low birth weight and short gestation when compared with either one abortion or one live birth. Women were matched with women who had the same operative procedure. Cases and controls were matched also for age, smoking institution and duration of gestation at entry into the study. See Repeat Abortions Increase Risk of Miscarriage, Premature Birth and Low Birth weight Babies, Family Planning
030) "A study at Vanderbilt University in 1979-80 found that 3.8% of the women with a history of induced abortion had placenta previa. If it was the first delivery since an induced first trimester induced abortion, the incidence of placenta previa was 4.6% compared to an overall percentage of 0.9%." J.M. Barrett, F.H. Boehm, A.P. Killam, "Induced Abortion: A Risk Factor For Placenta Previa," Am J. Obstet Gynecol, 141 (1981): 769.
031) "Amenorrhea and/or infertility secondary to intrauterine adhesions (Asherman's syndrome) following elective abortion is a significant complication." C. March and R. Israel, "Intrauterine Adhesions Secondary to Elective Abortion," Obstetrics and Gynecology, October 1976, 422-424.
032) "An association was found between cervical pregnancy and prior induced abortion." Dicker, et al, "Etiology of Cervical Pregnancy," The J. of Reproductive Medicine, January 1985, 25.
033) Many of the following paragraphs discuss PID. PID is infection of internal female reproductive organs by any of a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. PID is not a generic name for other STDs.
034) "Between 1975 and 1981, the number of ectopic pregnancies at Fairview Hospital more than doubled. Ectopic pregnancy is responsible for 10 percent of all maternal deaths. Patients who are infertile, did not use birth control, or who have a history of recent abortion or menstrual extraction, of PID, of IUD or recent removal of IUD or a history of previous tubal sterilization, tubal pregnancy, tubal reconstruction, and abdominal surgery have a high index of suspicion." M. Faith Kamsheh, "Ectopic Pregnancy Critical Analysis of 139 Cases," Minnesota Medicine, February 1983, 83-86.
035) "Chlamydia positive women aged 13-19 were more likely to develop post-abortion endometritis (28%) compared to women aged 20-24 (22.7%) or women aged 25-29 (20%). Chlamydia positive women aged 13-19 were more likely to develop post-abortion salingitis (21.9%) compared to women aged 20-24 (13.6%)." S. Osser and K. Perrson, "Postabortal Pelvic Infection Associated with Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection and the Influence of Humoral Immunity," Am. J. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 150 (1984): 699-703.
036) Some of the following paragraphs discuss salpingitis. Salpingitis is inflammation of a fallopian tube.
037) "Despite antibiotic therapy, patients who have had at least one episode of salpingitis have a 21 percent rate of involuntary infertility, as compared with the rate of 3% among the control population." L. Westrom, "Inflammatory Disease and Its Consequences in Industrialized Countries," American Journal Obstetrics Gynecology, 138 (1980): 880-892.
038) "Each abortion a woman has increases the chance that a subsequent pregnancy will be tubal." "Tubal Pregnancy Numbers Up," Star Tribune, 3 February 1987, 7C, quoted in Thomas Carrier, OB/GYN.
039) "Ectopic pregnancy has risen from 17,800 cases in 1970 to 88,000 hospitalized cases in 1987. From 1970-1987 approximately 877,400 cases have been reported among U.S. women 15-44 years. Thirty women were reported to have died from ectopic pregnancy in 1987. Although the cause of ectopic pregnancy is unknown, it has been attributed to alteration in tubal motility, hormonal release and anatomical changes such as scarring. Scarring may be caused by acute and chronic salpingitis." K. Nederof, et al., "Ectopic Pregnancy Surveillance United States, 1970-1987," Morbidity and Mortality
040) "Five hundred sixty-two Finnish patients who underwent legal abortions (69 percent by vacuum aspiration) were invited to a follow-up exam two years later. Only 25 percent came to a detailed gynecological exam. The rest either had an unknown address or were unwilling to take part in the discussion of an experience with 'negative personal associations.' Of the 143 patients examined, 14 percent had some early complications associated with the abortion. There were six cases of endometritis, six cases of heavy bleeding, one cervical rupture and one uterine perforation. A
041) "In a case-control study by the Harvard Schools of Public Health and the University of Athens, of women in Athens, Greece in 1987-88, the occurrence of either induced abortions or spontaneous abortions independently and significantly increased the risk of subsequent secondary infertility. The logistic progressions adjusted relative risks was 2.1 (1.1-4.0, 95% C.I.) for secondary infertility when there was 1 previous abortion and 2.3 (1.0-5.5, 95% C.I.) when there were 2 previous abortions. The
042) "In a study at Boston Hospital for Women conducted from 1976-1978, the relative risk of ectopic pregnancy was found to be 1.6 for women with one prior abortion and reduced to 1.3 after control of confounding factors. The relative risk for two or more abortions was 4.0 for women with two or more prior induced abortions, which was reduced to 2.6 after control of confounding factors." A. Levin, S. Schoenbaum, P. Stubblefield, S. Zimicki. R. Ronson and K. Ryan, "Ectopic Pregnancy and Prior Induced Abortion," American Journal of Public Health, March 1982, 253-256.
043) "In a study of 15,438 women who had suction curettage abortions at about 12 weeks gestation or less from 1975 to 1978, cervical injuries requiring suturing occurred in approximately one out of 100 abortions. [Cervical injury is one of the most frequent complications of suction curettage abortion, yet little is known about its risk factors or prevention. Most published reports lack an objective case definition of cervical injury. Reported rate of cervical injury ranges from 0.01 to 1.6 per 100 abortions. In addition to overt injury to the cervix during suction curettage, covert trauma is also important. Micro fractures of the cervix may occur during forceful dilation of the cervix, which may lead to persistent structural changes, cervical incompetence, premature delivery, and pregnancy complications.]" K. Schulz, D. Grimes and W. Cates, "Measures to Prevent Cervical Injuries During Suction Curettage Abortion," Lancet, 28 May 1983, 1182-1184.
044) "In a study of 170 women at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Belgium, there was found to be a strong correlation between an infection with c. trachomatis before abortion and the appearance of infectious complications after the aspiration curettage. Post-abortion infections were stated to be caused by micro-organisms introduced in the uterine cavity during the intervention. In addition, sexually transmitted micro-organisms such as n. gonorrhea and c. trachomatis can colonize the endocervix and cause endometritis or PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) after the aspiration curettage." D. Avonts and P. Piot, "Genital Infections in Women Undergoing Therapeutic Abortion," Europ J. Obstet. Gynec. Reprod. Biol., 20 (1985): 53-59.
045) Many of the following paragraphs discuss chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia Trachomatis is a sexually transmitted disease. Brian Gibson of Pro-Life Action Ministries said on November 1, 1997 (telephone call by Kenneth E. Kogut, Life Research Institute), "Very strong anecdotal evidence indicates that is probably extremely rare that a[n abortion] Center screens for chlamydia trachomatis before killing babies." Yet, see how prevalent this disease is and what complications result from it!
046) "In a study of 1100 Swedish women, 37.7% of chlamydia positive women developed infectious complications compared to only 6.2% of chlamydia negative women within one month of their abortion." S. Osser, I.C. Persson, "Postabortal Pelvic Infection Associated with Chlamydia Trachomatis and the Influence of Humoral Immunity," Am. J. Obstet Gynocol, 150, (1984): 699-703.
047) "Approximately 30-50 percent of PID episodes are caused by chlamydia trachomatis infection. It is estimated that each year 402,200 episodes of chlamydial PID occur, leading to 1,005,400 outpatient visits; 106,900 hospitalizations; 8,050 infertility consultations; 13,900 ectopic pregnancies; and 280 deaths. Other adverse health effects, and estimated direct and indirect costs are discussed. Ed. Note - This report is most significant to the issue of induced abortion as it is implicated in the onset of pelvic inflammatory disease." A. Eugene Washington, R. Johnson, and L. Sanders, Jr., "Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections in the United States, What Are They Costing Us?" Journal of the American Medical Association, 17 April 1987, 2070-2072.
048) "In a Johns Hopkins study of 505 women who had an induced abortion, 17.6% had a chlamydia infections. Six of 17 patients with postabortal endometritis were culture positive immediately prior to abortion. Some 10% of c. trachomatis-infected women vs. 3.5% of non-c. trachomatis-infected women had endometritis following induced abortion. The article stated: 'It is believed that a factor in the development of endometritis is the induced abortion itself as it has been documented that dilation of
049) "In a study of 218 women admitted for legal termination of pregnancy in Oslo, Norway, 30 (13.8 percent) had chlamydia trachomatis in the cervix before abortion. Twenty-one of the 30 patients exhibiting chlamydia trachomatis were followed up three months after their abortions. Seven (23.3 percent) had developed PID, six (20 percent had developed salpingitis, 17 (81 percent) showed detectable chlamydial antibodies. Conclusion: Patients harboring chlamydia trachomatis in the cervix at termination of pregnancy are at high risk of developing post-operative infections. Routine screening in the cervix before surgery is essential." E. Qvigstag, et al., "Therapeutic Abortion and Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection," British Journal of Venereal Disease, 58 (1982): 182-183.
050) "In a study of 7228 European women from 8 cities, the reduction in mean birth-weight associated with cigarette smoking varied from 120-146 grams. Low birth weight in the pregnancy after induced abortion by vacuum aspiration was 5.4% to 6.1% compared with 2.9%-4.7% for prior live birth or 3.7% if no previous pregnancy. Short gestation (258 days) was 4.7%-5.7% in the pregnancy after abortion after vacuum aspiration compared to 2.0%-3.9% for prior live birth or 2.4%-3.0% for no previous pregnancy. No significant differences between groups were found with respect to midtrimester spontaneous abortions." "Gestation, Birth-Weight and Spontaneous Abortion in Pregnancy After Induced Abortion, Report of the Collaborative Study by World Health Organization Task Force on Sequelae of Abortion," Lancet, January 1979, 142-145.
051) "In a study of 90 abortion facility workers in the San Francisco area, over 95% expressed discomfort and surprise at repeaters." Kathleen Marie Roe, Ph.D., "Abortion Work: A Study of the Relationship Between Private Troubles and Public," (diss, University of California, Berkeley, 1985).
052) "In a study of women at Yale-New Haven Hospital during 1974-75, women having repeat abortions were significantly more likely to be divorced than women having first abortions. Women having repeat abortions were more likely to be on public welfare than women having first abortions (38% vs. 25%)." M. Shepard and M. Bracken, "Contraception and Repeat Abortion," Journal of Biosocial Science, 11 (1979): 289-302.
053) "In a Washington State study of 6541 white women who delivered their first child between 1984-87, 4.4% of women with no reported abortions had low birth weight babies (2500 grams or less) compared to 5.7% of women reporting 1 abortion, 7.7% of women reporting 2 abortions, 7.1% of women reporting 3 abortions, and 9.6% of women reporting 4 or more abortions." M.T. Mandelson, C.B. Maden, J.R. Daling, "Low Birth Weight in Relation to Multiple Induced Abortions," Am J. Public Health, March 1992, 391-394.
054) "In addition to overt injury to the cervix during suction curettage, covert trauma is also important, microfractures of the cervix may occur during forceful dilatation of the cervix, which may lead to persistent structural changes, cervical incompetence, premature delivery and pregnancy complications. Citing several studies. " K. Schulz, D. Grimes, W. Cates, "Measures to Prevent Cervical Injury During Suction Curettage Abortion." Lancet, 28 May 1983, 1182.
055) "In salpingitis, it is believed that anaerobic bacteria often gain entrance to the tubes as secondary invades from the lower genital tract in patients whose tubes have been damaged with sexually transmitted disease agents. In such secondary infections, both anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria can be demonstrated. Endogenous tubal infections may occur in hosts whose genital organs have been 'compromised' by gynecologic surgery, curettage, legal or illegal abortion, or various diagnostic procedures. In the hospital catchment region of Lund such 'iatrogenic' cases constitute approximately 15 percent of all salpingitis patients." P.A. Mardh, "An Overview of Infectious Aunts of Salpingitis, Their Biology and Recent Advances in Methods of Detection," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 138(7), Part 2, 1 December 1980, 933-651. Also see L. Westrom and P. A. Mardh, Epidemiology, Etiology and Prognosis of Acute Salpingitis - a study of 1,457 laparoscopically verified cases in D. Hobson and K. Holmes, ed., Non-gonococcal Urethritis and Related Infections, Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology, 1977, 84-90.
056) "Induced abortion was associated with higher prematurity and spontaneous abortion rates in later pregnancies. Women who had 2 or more abortions had a 2-3 times increased risk of miscarrying a pregnancy." L.H. Roht, H. Aoyama, G.E. Leinen, "The Association with Multiple Induced Abortions With Subsequent Prematurity and Spontaneous Abortion," Acta Obstet Gynaecol. Japan, 23 (1976): 140-145.
057) "Infants born following a previous induced abortion by dilation and curettage showed an excess of low birth weight. The greater the degree of dilation at D&C, the greater damage to the cervix. This in turn produces an increase in low birth weight due to shortened gestation in the next pregnancy. Adverse effects of D&C are applicable only to settings where this procedure is the usual method employed and not to areas where vacuum aspiration is the procedure of choice or where gradual dilation by use of laminaria is used. If induced abortion is necessary, it should be done as early as possible with the minimum of cervical dilation." P.E. Slater, A.M. Davies and S. Harlap, "The Effect of Abortion Method on the Outcome of Subsequent Pregnancy," Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 26(3) (March 1981): 123-128.
058) "It is estimated that each year 402,200 episodes of chlamydial PID occur, leading to 13,900 ectopic pregnancies and 280 deaths." A. Eugene Washington, R.E. Johnson, L.L. Sanders, "Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections in the United States, What Are They Costing Us?" Journal of the American Medical Association, 17 April 1987, 2070-2072.
059) "One of the important complications of first-trimester abortion by vacuum aspiration is pelvic infection. The incidence of this complication varies widely (0.3-18 percent) due to differences in  definition of post-abortion infection;  use of prophylactic antibiotic treatment;  time of observation. Of 104 women who underwent first-trimester abortions, no patients showed any sign of lower genital tract infection prior to the operation. Nevertheless, 14 percent required postoperative treatment with antibiotics because of mild or severe infection of the upper genital tract. Patients were studied after two months." P.J. Moberg, et al., "Pre-operative Cervical Microbial Flora and Post- Abortion Infection," Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand, 57 (1978), 415-419.
060) "Operative procedures such as cervical dilatation, curettage, tubal insufflations and IUD insertions carry a small risk of infectious complications. During the last few decades, the numbers of legal abortions and IUD insertions have reached such proportion that the immediate consequences have influenced the epidemiology of salpingitis." K.K. Holmes, P.A. Mardh, P.F. Sparling, P.J. Wiesner, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1984, 623.
061) "Out of 325 patients with a history of ectopic pregnancy, 181 had one or more abortions, either spontaneous or induced. Of those, 135 were induced and 67 were spontaneous abortions. Twenty-one of the 181 women had both induced and spontaneous abortions." A. Levin, et al., "Ectopic Pregnancy and Prior Induced Abortion," American Journal of Public Health, December 1955, 619-624.
062) "Pelvic inflammatory disease is a major complication after therapeutic abortion; readmission rates to hospitals were 4 percent in this study, with pelvic infections and retained products being the main causes." F. Jerve and P. Fylling "Therapeutic Abortion," Acta. Obstetric Gynecology Scand., 57 (1978): 237.
063) "Pre-abortion clinical and microbiological tests were undertaken. Post-abortion morbidity was measured in 167 women in Liverpool, England during 1984. Twelve percent had major upper genital tract infection 8-17 days after their abortion. Another 10% later showed clinical signs that suggested minor upper genital tract infection. Abnormal cervical cytology (mostly inflammation) was found in 52% of the overall sample and 79% of the women with chlamydial infection had abnormal cervical
064) "Quoting Kenneth Schulz, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia: 'An estimated 13,000 women develop postabortal upper genital tract infection which is associated not only with long-term morbidity but also, occasionally, with long-term sequelae such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy.'" "Genital Tract Infection," Ob. Gyn. News, 20(3) (1985): 41-42.
065) "Repeated abortion was associated with a 2- to 2.5-fold increase in the rate of low birth weight and short gestation when compared with either one abortion or one live birth. "Repeat Abortions Increased Risk of Miscarriage, Premature Births and Low Birth Weight Babies," Family Planning Perspectives, January/February 1979, 39-40.
066) "Repeaters were found to be more sexually active than first-timers, thus increasing their risk of unwanted pregnancy even though they used contraception more than initial aborters." B. Howe, R. Kaplan, and C. English, "Repeat Abortion: Blaming the Victims," American Journal Public Health, December 1979, 1242-1246.
067) "Review of the literature on the incidence and effects of repeat abortions. In includes moral and social deterioration, communication breakdown, decline in religious affiliation, emotional or psychological conflicts, replacement pregnancy, self-punishment, abortion as birth control and the evangelization of abortion." "Special Issue on Repeat Abortion" Association for Interdisciplinary Research Newsletter, Summer 1989, 1-8.
068) "Reviews the current status of studies on the subject. Notes that studies show evidence of elevated risk of postabortal PID for women with history of PID or c. trachomatis. A recent episode of vaginitis may also be a risk factor. " Lars Heisterberg, "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease following Induced First-Trimester Abortion", Danish Medical Bulletin, February 1988, 64-75.
069) "Seven hundred fifty-two mothers who were interviewed during a subsequent pregnancy, and who reported one or more induced abortions in the past, were more likely to report bleeding in each of the first three months of present pregnancy. They were subsequently less likely to have a normal delivery, and more of them needed a manual removal of the placenta or other intervention in the third state of labor. A disturbing finding in this study is the excess of malformations in the births following earlier induced abortions." S. Harlap and AM Davies, "Late Sequelae of Induced Abortion: Complications and Outcome of Pregnancy and Labor," American Journal of Epidemiology, 102(3) (1975): 217-224.
070) "The relative risk of spontaneous fetal losses after induced abortion increased with the number of previous induced abortions and was not explained by the distribution of demographic and social variables." S. Harlap, et al., "Prospective Study of Spontaneous Fetal Losses After Induced Abortions," New England Journal of Medicine, 27 September 1979, 677-681.
071) "The total rates of later abortions and infants with low birth weight below 2500 grams was higher in women with a previous induced abortion than in women whose previous pregnancy ended in a spontaneous abortion or delivery." O. Koller and S.N. Eikhom): "Late Sequelae of Induced Abortion in Primigravidae," Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand, 56 (1977): 311.
072) "There is increased risk of cervical injury during suction curettage abortions obtained by teenagers. These findings cause concern because cervical injury in initial unplanned pregnancies may predispose young women to adverse outcomes in future planned pregnancies." W. Cates, K. Schultz, D. Grimes, "The Risks Associated with Teenage Abortion," New England Journal of Medicine, 15 September 1983, 612-624.
073) "There was a clear association between the presence of post-abortion infection or retained parts and a five-fold increase in ectopic pregnancy compared to uninfected women." C.S. Chung, et al., "Induced Abortion and Ectopic Pregnancy in Subsequent Pregnancies," 115(6) (1982): 879-887.
074) "There was a significant increase in the frequency of low birth weight, compared to births in which the mother has no history of previous abortion." S. Harlap and A. Davies, "Late Sequelae of Induced Abortion: Complications and Outcome of Pregnancy and Labor," American Journal of Epidemiology, 102(3) (1975): 217-224.
075) "This article identifies 32 areas of social, medical and psychological health that deteriorate as induced abortion is repeated." "Women's Health and Abortion. I. Deterioration of Health Among Women Repeating Abortion," Association for Interdisciplinary Research Newsletter, Winter 1993, 1-8.
076) "This study compared prior pregnancy histories of two groups of women, one having a pregnancy loss up to 28 weeks gestation and the other having a full-term delivery. Women who had two or more prior induced abortions had a twofold to threefold increase in first-trimester spontaneous abortions (miscarriage) between 14 to 20 and 20 to 27 weeks. The increased risk was present for women who had legal induced abortions since 1973. It was not explained by smoking status, history of prior spontaneous loss, prior abortion method, or degree of cervical dilation. No increased risk of pregnancy loss was detected among women with a single induced prior abortion." A. Levin, et al., "Association of Induced Abortion with Subsequent Pregnancy Loss," JAMA, 243 (1980): 2495.
077) "This study concludes the principal etiology of ectopic pregnancy as healed salpingitis which may have been gonorrheal, postabortal or puerperal. These infections are readily controlled with antibiotics but fusion of the plical of the endosalpinx is a sequelae. These tubal adhesions subsequently trap the developing embryo." Jack G. Hallatt, "Repeat Ectopic Pregnancy: A Study of 123 Consecutive Cases," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 15 June 1975, 520.
078) "This study found that birth weight less than 2500 grams as well as a birth weight less than 2000 grams were significantly more frequent in an obstetric history of one or more induced abortions than in a group of patients without a history of induced abortion; 5.3% v. 4.7% below 2500 grams and 2.3% v. 1.4% below 2000 grams. The differences in birth weight were found to be due to pre-term delivery and not to growth retardation. It was not clear whether the induced abortions in all cases immediately preceded the current pregnancy. Most abortions in this study were thought to have been illegal." S. Harlap and M. Davies, "Late Sequelae of Induced Abortion: Complications and Outcome of Pregnancy and Labor," Am J. Epidemiology, 102(3) (1975): 217.
079) "Women in the post-salpingitic state have a seven-to tenfold risk for ectopic pregnancy, compared with women who never had the disease." K.K. Holmes et al., Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1984, 630.
080) "Women who had two or more induced abortions were 2.7 times more likely to have future first trimester spontaneous abortions (miscarriage) and 3.2 times more likely to have a second-trimester incomplete abortion than were women with no history of induced abortion." A. Levin, S. Schoenbaum, R. Monson, P. Stubbelfield, K. Ryan, "Association of Induced Abortion with Subsequent Pregnancy Loss," JAMA 243: (1980): 2495.
081) Compared to women who have previously delivered, the risk of low birth weight is elevated for women delivering for the first time after an induced abortion by vacuum aspiration." Carol J. Hogue, "Impact of Abortion on Subsequent Fecundity," Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynecology, March, 1986.
082) According to an /American Journal of Public Health/ study, a woman's chances of having an ectopic pregnancy increase significantly, in direct proportion to the number of abortions she has had. "After Abortion, Women Who Have Never Had an Ectopic Pregnancy May Be at Increased Risk of Having One," /Family Planning Perspectives/, July-August 1998, 199.
083) "Studies indicate that for healthy women, the risks of contracting certain problems during pregnancy and delivery are actually reduced with each subsequent pregnancy. For example, hypertensive disorders like eclampsia (convulsions) and pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure with edema or abnormal protein in the urine) are among the major causes of pregnancy-related deaths in the western world." B. E. Kwast, "The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: their contribution to maternal
084) "Data from other studies show that women with a history of abortion:
085) "Researchers estimate that about ten women die every year from abortion-related ectopic pregnancy." T. Strahan, "Induced Abortion as a Contribution Factor in Maternal Mortality or Pregnancy-Related Death in Women," Research Bulletin, 10(3):7, Nov. - Dec. 1996, quoted in Amy R. Sobie, "The Risks of Choice," The Post-Abortion Review, July-Sept. 2000, 4.
086) "Such self-destructive tendencies are a common post-abortive reaction. One study found that women who had undergone abortions were treated 24 percent more often for accidents or conditions related to violence than women who had given birth." R. F. Badgely et al., Report of the Committee on Abortion Law, Supply and Services, Ottawa, 1977:313-321, as cited in L. L. De Veber et al., "Post abortion Grief: Psychological Sequelae of Induced Abortion," Humane Medicine, 7(3):203, Aug. 1991.
After reading the above you should have a clear understanding that abortion is an unique procedure, in that, it is the only 'medical procedure' that gives special protection to those who perform it. Making those who profit from abortion safer and legally protected from the problems documented above.. This clearly defines for all, what it means to keep abortion safe and legal. As an industry, it operates with very little regulation or scrutiny and is continually lobbying for less.
If you like to be operated on in 3rd
Unlike bias industry claims, (that abortion is safer
than child birth,) according to a (non politically motivated) study
in finland, a woman is 4 times more likely to die within 1 year of an
abortion than childbirth.
Copyright ©1996 - 2008 ProChoice.com - All rights
reserved - Links to other sites do not constitute approval
of their content and are provided as is.