Abortion... When is it safe?No medical procedure is 100% safe so the answer is never Completely,
and less safe than many procedures. To be 100% safe don't have one.
The statement we keep hearing is: We need to "Keep abortion safe and legal". What is referred to in the terms: "Safe and legal"?
The below information provides scientific and other documentation that legal abortion, contrary to popular opinion, doesn't help women but hurts them severely and/or kills them.
There are approximately 350 entries linked to below showing how abortion hurts women.
In addition, you can also search for categories of how abortion hurts women. These are the categories:
Other notes about citations:
Now the actual material on abortion hurting women begins.
001) "A study of women entering Boston Hospital for Women during 1975 - 77 found that among women who had 2 or more abortions 51.7% smoked compared with 40.3% for women with a history of 1 abortion and 31.7% for women with no history of abortion." A. Levin, et al., "Association of Induced Abortion With Subsequent Pregnancy Loss," JAMA, 27 June 1980, 2495, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Winter 1993, 4.
002) "A study conducted by researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Washington among 6541 white women during 1984-87 found that 18.0% of the women smoked during pregnancy where there was no history of a prior abortion compared with 28.1% (one abortion), 31.0% (two prior abortions), 29.8% (three prior abortions), and 41.6% (four or more prior abortions)." [Smoking is bad for the pre-born baby.] M. Mandelson, C. Maden, J. R. Daling, "Low Birth Weight in Relation to Multiple Induced Abortions,"
003) "Post-abortive women are also more likely to smoke than women with other pregnancy outcomes, which carries its own set of health risks.26 For example, smoking during pregnancy has been associated with pregnancy loss, premature birth, low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and neurological and respiratory problems in infants. Despite these risks, women with a history of abortion are more likely to smoke during subsequent pregnancies, perhaps a means of relieving post-abortion anxiety.27" 26. See A. Lopes, et al., "The Impact of Multiple Induced Abortions on the Outcome of Subsequent Pregnancy," Australia New Zealand J. Obstet. Gynaecol, 31(1):43-43, 1991; S. Kullander and B. Kallen, "A Prospective Study of Smoking and Pregnancy," Acta Obstet Gynecol Scandinavia, 50:83-94, 1971; C. J. Hogue, "Low birth weight subsequent to induced abortion. A Historical prospective of 948 women in Skopje, Yugoslavia," American J. Obstet Gynecol, 123(7):678-681, Dec.1, 1975, quoted in Amy R. Sobie, "The Risks of Choice," The Post-Abortion Review, July-Sept. 2000, 4. 27. M. T. Mandelson, C. B. Maden and J. R. Daling, "Low Birth Weight in Relation to Multiple
004) "Induced abortion, including legalized abortion, is a risk factor for smoking in women. A study of women patients entering Boston Hospital for Women during 1976 - 78 found that 31.7% smoked if there was no history of abortion compared to 40.3% (one abortion) or 51.7% (two or more abortions). (Levin, et al., 2495-2499, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Spring 1993, 1.) A large scale study conducted by the World Health Organization on Arab and Jewish women found that among current smokers, 12.3% reported a prior induced abortion compared to only 6.3% among women who had never smoked. (Harlap and Davies, "Characteristics of Pregnant Women Reporting Previous Induced Abortions," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1975, 149, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Spring 1993, 1.) A Swedish study conducted during 1970 - 78 found that 37% of women reporting prior abortion smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day compared to only 21.1% for parity matched controls and 18.9% for Swedish women generally. The Swedish study also reported that women who had prior abortions were more often teenagers and unmarried at a subsequent delivery than controls, and were also more likely to be smoking during pregnancy. (Meirik and Nygren, "Outcome of First Delivery After 2nd Trimester Two-Stage Induced Abortion: A Historical Cohort Study, ACTA. Obstet. Gynecol. Scand., 1984, 45-50, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Spring 1993, 1.) The results of these earlier studies have been recently confirmed in a study of 6541 white women in the major urban counties of Washington state who delivered during 1984 - 87. Among women with no abortion history only 18.0% smoked during pregnancy compared with 28.1% (one abortion) or 41.6% (four or more abortions)." M. T. Mandelson, et al., 391-394, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Spring 1993, 1.
005) "If all smoking related deaths were taken into account the 2% smoking increase in post abortion women would lead to approximately 11,250 deaths annually." "And if induced abortion increased smoking rates 15% the annual death rate would be approximately 84,405." (NAIRVSC, Spring 1993, 3.) Note by Life Research Institute: All these figures are in proportion. That is, 1% corresponds with 11,250/2 = 5,625 deaths annually. So, from the studies choose what percent increase is most likely.
006) "There is other evidence that induced abortion is a major direct or indirect factor in smoking. It is known that women frequently smoke for emotional reasons to attempt to relieve depression or anxiety or as an attempt to cope with stress. R. W. Coan, "Personality Variables Associated with Cigarette Smoking," J. of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 86-104, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Spring 1993, 2. "The available evidence [more abortions coincide with more smoking], particularly with respect to emotional problems as abortion is repeated, is a strong indicator that abortion does not relieve stress and anxiety over the long run but instead increases it."
007) "According to the most recent figures [probably 1965 - 1990 data] women smokers are 10.8 times more likely to die from lung cancer than women non-smokers." L. Garfinkel and E. Silverberg, "Lung Cancer and Smoking Trends in the United States Over the Past 25 Years," CA - A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, May-June 1991, 137, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Spring 1993, 3.
008) "In a California study of smoking and drinking practices of over 12,000 pregnant women during 1975 - 77, women reporting a history of two or more abortions nearly all (98.5%) reported consuming alcohol during the entire 9 months of subsequent pregnancy intended to be carried to term. This was a much higher level than women who reported their health as good or excellent (19.7%)." Kuzma and Kissinger, "Patterns of Alcohol and Cigarette Use in Pregnancy," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and
009) "Since women who have had abortions have a higher incidence of alcohol abuse compared to women without any abortion history, they have a higher risk of a fatal crash in a motor vehicle." "A 1981 random survey of U.S. women found that women with a history of abortion were more than twice as likely to be heavy drinkers (13%) compared to U.S. women in general (6%). Driving while intoxicated was a problem for 45% of the heavy drinkers but only 17% of women drinkers generally."
010) "Induced abortion is a direct cause of drug abuse in 15 - 20% of the women who have abortions. (T. W. Strahan, "The Incidence and Effects of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Women Following Induced Abortions," NAIRVSC, Summer 1990, 1-8, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Spring 1993, 3.) Women with a history of abortion are frequently able to recall that the onset of drug abuse or increased drug abuse
011) "A study of Boston Inner-City women enrolled for prenatal care found that women with a history of two prior abortions were more than twice as likely to be using cocaine during pregnancy (19% v. 9%) and three times more likely to use cocaine with a history of 3 or more abortions (9% v. 3%) compared with non-cocaine using controls." D. A. Frank, et al., "Cocaine Use During Pregnancy, Prevalence and Correlates," Pediatrics, December 1988, 888, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Winter
012) "A study on maternal drug use at UCSD Medical Center in San Diego found that women who used cocaine and/or methamphetamine averaged 1.7 abortions compared with 1.2 abortions for nondrug using controls. Women who used heroin or methadone had an average of 2.4 prior abortions and women who used both heroin and either cocaine or methamphetamine had an average of 2.7 prior abortions." A. S. Oro and S. D. Dixon, "Prenatal Cocaine and Methamphetamine Exposure: Maternal and Neo-Natal Correlates," J. Pediatrics, 1987, 571, quoted in Strahan, NAIRVSC, Winter 1993, 4.
013) "Women who abort are nearly four times more likely to start abusing drugs or alcohol." David C. Reardon, The Post-Abortion Review, "NEW STUDY CONFIRMS LINK BETWEEN ABORTION AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE.," Fall 1993, 1.
014) "A 1974-75 study at Boston City Hospital found that infants born to heavy drinkers had more than twice the congenital abnormality (32%) compared to abstainers (9%) or light drinkers (14%)."Ouellette et al, "Adverse Effects on Offspring of Maternal Alcohol Abuse During Pregnancy," New England Journal of Medicine, 297 (1977): 528-530. So if, as other entries herein indicate, a woman increases her chances of heavy drinking after aborting versus women who don't abort, then her further offspring are more than twice as likely to have congenital abnormalities.
015) "A 1976 Seattle, Washington study of women at a detoxification center found that problem drinkers and secondary alcoholics were found to be significantly more likely to have experienced alcoholic related problems subsequent to an abortion. Sixty-four percent of the secondary alcoholics and 32% of the problem drinkers reported physical fights while drinking." E.R. Morrissey and M.A. Schukit, "Stressful Life Events and Alcohol Problems Among Women Seen at a Detoxification Center," J. Studies on Alcohol, 1978, 1559.
016) "A study at the Medical College of Ohio compared differences in 35 women who had their abortions as teenagers with 36 women who had their abortions after the age of 20. Antisocial and paranoid disorders as well as drug abuse and psychotic delusions were found to be significantly higher in the group who aborted as teenagers. Adolescents were more likely to retreat into sexual activity or drug and alcohol abuse." Nancy B. Campbell, K. Franco and S. Jurs, "Abortion in Adolescence," Adolescence, 23(92) (Winter 1988)" 813-823.
017) "A study of 253 inner-city Boston adolescents served at Boston City Hospital during 1984-86 found that a history of a prior elected abortion increased by twice (33.0% vs. 16.3%) the likelihood that the adolescent mother was using alcohol, marijuana or cocaine. Some 67.9% of the drug users were American blacks, 8.9% were foreign-born blacks; 44% of the non-users were American blacks, 14.9% of the non-users were foreign-born blacks." H. Amaro, B. Zuckerman and H. Cabral, "Drug Use Among Adolescent Mothers: Profile of Risk," Pediatrics, July 1989, 144-150.
018) "A study of 6,363 Swedish women during 1963-64 found that 56.1% of the women smoked who had induced abortions compared with 43.3% smokers among women having given birth. Information on whether the pregnancy was wanted was obtained on 4,843 women. Among those reporting wanted pregnancies, 41.5% were smokers vs. 52.4% among women who reported unwanted pregnancies (later
019) "A study of 6541 white women in major urban counties of Washington state who delivered during 1984-87 found that only 18.0% smoked during pregnancy if women reported no prior abortion compared to 28.1% (one abortion) or 41.6% (four or more prior abortions)." M.T. Mandleson, C.B. Madden, J.R. Daling, "Low Birth Weight in Relation to Multiple Induced Abortions," Am. J. Public Health, March 1992, 391.
020) "A study of 697 Boston inner-city women during 1984 to determine the extent of cocaine use during pregnancy found that a history of two prior abortions doubled the rate of cocaine use (19% vs. 9%) and a history of three or more abortions tripled the risk of cocaine use (9% vs. 3%) compared with non-cocaine users. Some 62% of the cocaine users were North American blacks, 4% were identified as other blacks, 47% of the non-cocaine users were North American blacks and 19% were identified as
021) "A study of 7,327 pregnant women at two Copenhagen hospitals found 63 percent smokers where there was one or more prior induced abortions, 51 percent smokers where there was a history of one or more spontaneous abortions, 49 percent smokers where there was a previous live birth, and 55 percent smokers where there was no previous history of pregnancy. After 28 weeks gestation, 43.1% still smoked during pregnancy if the last pregnancy was terminated by abortion compared to only 32.1% if
022) "A study of women patients entering Boston Hospital for Women during 1976-78 found that 31.7% smoked if there was no history of abortion, compared to 40.3% (one abortion) and 51.7% (two or more abortions)." Levin, "Association of Induced Abortion with Subsequent Pregnancy Loss," JAMA, 27 June 1980, 2495.
023) "A Swedish study conducted during 1970-78 found that 37% of the women reporting prior abortion smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day compared to only 21.1% for parity matched controls and 18.9% for Swedish women generally. Heavier smoking was more pronounced among women with a history of abortion than for women with no history of abortion." Meirick and Nygren, "Outcome of First Delivery After 2nd Trimester Two-Stage Induced Abortion: A Historical Cohort Study," Acta., Obstet, Gynecol., Scand., 63(1) (1984): 45.
024) "According to anecdotal reports, substance abuse occurred in women following induced abortion to overcome nightmares or insomnia, as an attempt to reduce grief reactions, and to repress the abortion experience itself." DRABSNM
025) "In a 1981 random survey of 917 women in the U.S., 4% of the abstainers had a prior reported induced abortion versus 13% prior induced abortion rate for moderate or heavy drinkers. Moderate and heavy drinkers combined exceeded lighter drinkers in abortion experience to a statistically significant degree." A. Klassen and S. Wilsnack, "Sexual Experience and Drinking Among Women in a U.S. National Survey," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15(5) (1986): 363-392.
026) "In a Boston inner city study of adolescent mothers in 1984-86, mothers with a prior elective abortion were twice as likely to use alcohol, marijuana, cocaine or opiates than non-drug users (33% v. 16%). Drug users were nearly three times more likely to report being threatened, abused or involved in fights during pregnancy than non-users (24% v. 9%)." Amaro, Cabral, Zuckerman, "Drug Use Among Adolescent Mothers: Profile of Risk," Pediatrics, 84(1) (July 1989): 144.
027) "In a California study of more than 12,000 women during 1975-1977, of those having a history of two or more abortions, virtually all (98.5%) consumed alcohol throughout the entire 9 months of a subsequent pregnancy and at higher levels than any of the other categories studied (up to 3 oz. Per day). Overall, 51% of the women drank and 35% smoked during the pregnancy." J. Kuzma and D. Kissinger, "Patterns of Alcohol and Cigarette Use in Pregnancy," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and
028) "In a later study of 4,719 Swedish women during 1970-1978, 58.1% of those women with a history of abortion smoked (37.4% smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day) compared with 40.4% smokers among parity-matched controls (21.1% of parity-matched controls smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day) and all Swedish women generally in 1975 (37.8% smoked and 18.9% of all Swedish women smoked 10 r more cigarettes per day)." O. Meirik, K.G. Nygren, "Outcome of First Delivery After Second Trimester Two Staged Induced Abortion: A Controlled Historical Cohort Study," Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand., 63(1) (1984): 45-50.
029) "In a San Diego study of drug use, women who used cocaine and/or methamphetamine averaged 1.7 abortions compared with 1.2 abortions for non-drug using controls. Women who used heroin or methadone were more likely to have had abortions (2.4 vs. 1.2) than non-drug using controls. Infants exposed to both heroin and either cocaine or methamphetamine had mothers with the highest number of pregnancies (5) and abortions (2.7). These infants had the highest percentage of no prenatal care, prematurity, poorer growth, small birth weight and fetal distress." A.S. Oro and S.D. Dixon, "Perinatal Cocaine and Methamphetamine Exposure: Maternal and Neonatal Correlates," Journal of Pediatrics, 111 (1987): 571-578.
030) "In a Scottish study of 1,008 women, those with a history of induced abortion had higher levels of alcohol consumption than those with a history of stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, or having had a mentally or physically handicapped child, according to self-reports of the women involved." Moria Plant, Women, Drinking and Pregnancy, (Tavistock Publications: London, 1985).
031) "In a study of drug abuse among Boston inner-city women during pregnancy, those using cocaine were twice as likely to have a history of two elective abortions (19% vs. 9%) and three times more likely to have had three or more elective abortions (9% vs. 3%) than non-cocaine using controls." D.A. Frank, B. Zuckerman, H. Amaro, K. Aboagye, "Cocaine Use During Pregnancy: Prevalence and Correlates," Pediatrics, December 1988, 888-895.
032) "In a study of inner-city adolescent mothers, those with a history of induced abortion were twice as likely to be involved in alcohol, marijuana or cocaine compared with non-using controls." H. Amaro, B. Zuckerman and H. Cabral, "Drug Use Among Adolescent Mothers: Profile of Risk," Pediatrics, July 1989, 144-150.
033) "In a survey of 700 women who responded to a random questionnaire survey, the rate of substance abuse was reported to be 14.6% among women who aborted their first pregnancy compared to 3.8% among women who did not abort their first pregnancy. Women who engaged in substance abuse prior to their first pregnancy were excluded from the study." David C. Reardon, "New Study Confirms Link Between Abortion and Substance Abuse," The Post-Abortion Review, Fall 1993, 6.
034) "In a Washington State Study of 6541 women who delivered a child between 1984-87, 41.6% of the women smoked during this pregnancy if they had a history of 4 or more induced abortions compared with 31.0% smokers (2 prior abortions), 28.1% smokers (1 prior abortion), or 18.0% smokers (no prior abortions.)" M.T. Mandelson, C.B. Maden, J.R. Daling, "Low Birth Weight in Relation to Multiple Induced Abortions," Am.J. Public Health, March 1993, 391-394.
035) "Increased use of alcohol, tobacco, drugs and tranquilizers was found in women who aborted compared to women who carried to term where each group had presented for abortion for psychiatric reasons at a Cape Town, South Africa hospital." S.A. Drower and E.S. Nash, "Therapeutic Abortion on Psychiatric Grounds," South Africa Medical Journal, 7 Oct 1978, 604-608.
036) "Smokers have twice the rate of reporting previous induced abortion than non-smokers, i.e. 12 percent vs. 6 percent based upon standardized rates among Arab and Israeli women." S. Harlap and A. Davies, "Characteristics of Pregnancy Women Reporting Previous Induced Abortions," Bulletin World Health Organization, 52 (1975): 149.
037) "Substance Abuse: Women who have had abortions frequently report their first heavy use of alcohol or drugs to attempt to alleviate the stress related to abortion. Substance abuse in women following abortion may occur in an attempt to overcome nightmares or insomnia, as an attempt to reduce grief reactions and to attempt to repress the abortion experience itself. MAB, ii-v.
038) "Women patients of Boston Hospital had smoking rates of 31.7 percent with no prior induced abortion, 40.3 percent with one prior abortion and 51.7 percent with two or more prior abortions." A. Levin, et al., "Association of Induced Abortion with Subsequent Pregnancy Loss," Journal of the American Medical Association, 27 June 1980, 2495-2499.
039) Myfawny Sanders, director of the Women's Pregnancy Center in Peoria, Ill., says she has never met a woman in prison who doesn't blame her incarceration partly on past abortions. Mrs. Sanders, who works mainly with women with drug problems, says that because of "the emotional pain caused by [their past] abortions, these girls took any measure necessary to get their drug of choice," then ended up in jail.
040) "Women who have an abortion are five times more likely to report subsequent substance abuse compared to women who carry to term, according to a study published in the latest issue of American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
041) A recent major study of death certificates and government medical records in Finland has shown that the risk of death from suicide is six times higher for women who have had an abortion compared to women who gave birth. The researchers also found that the risk of dying from accidents and homicide was four and twelve times higher, respectively." The Post-Abortion Review, "15th Study Links Abortion, Substance Abuse," January - March 2000, 8.
After reading the above you should have a clear understanding that abortion is an unique procedure, in that, it is the only 'medical procedure' that gives special protection to those who perform it. Making those who profit from abortion safer and legally protected from the problems documented above.. This clearly defines for all, what it means to keep abortion safe and legal. As an industry, it operates with very little regulation or scrutiny and is continually lobbying for less.
If you like to be operated on in 3rd
Unlike bias industry claims, (that abortion is safer
than child birth,) according to a (non politically motivated) study
in finland, a woman is 4 times more likely to die within 1 year of an
abortion than childbirth.
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